We use playback protocol to detect inconspicuous nocturnal avian species on the ranch. These surveys are conducted at 10 different points throughout the property. Researchers spend 15 minutes at each point, beginning with a 30 second period of silence. The period of silence is followed by a focal species call with a 1-minute break between each call. Surveyors listen for avian species to call back and record any species that are detected. Our focal species on the ranch are barred owls, great-horned owls and Eastern screech owls.